Boreal forest is a conifer or conifer-hardwood forest type occurring on moist to dry sites characterized by species dominant in the Canadian boreal forest. It typically occupies upland sites along shores of the Great Lakes, on islands in the Great Lakes, and locally inland. The community occurs north of the climatic tension zone primarily on sand dunes, glacial lakeplains, and thin soil over bedrock or cobble. Soils of sand and sandy loam are typically moderately acid to neutral, but heavier soils and more acid conditions are common. Proximity to the Great Lakes results in high levels of windthrow and climatic conditions characterized by low summer temperatures and high levels of humidity, snowfall, and summer fog and mist. Additional important forms of natural disturbance include fire and insect epidemics. The canopy is dominated by balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white spruce (Picea glauca), and northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis), often with lesser amounts of paper birch (Betula

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